Page 3 - TURKISH INFINITIVES and ENGLISH INFINITIVES or ENGLISH GERUNDS - YUKSEL GOKNEL
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INFINITIVES or GERUNDS

            Some English present participles “verb- ing” can be used as adjectives
            in sentences whose Turkish equivalents are formed by attaching [en, an]
            adjective-producing allomorphs to verbs. For instance:

            fly-ing  →  uç-an,  talk-ing  →  konuş-an,  shin-ing  →  ışılda-/y/an,
            smil-ing → gülümse-/y/en, rise-ing →  yüksel-en,  cry-ing  → ağla-/y/an,
            sing-ing →  ötüş-en,  fall-ing → düş-en,  roar-ing → kükre-/y/en.

            fly-ing birds → Uç-an kuşlar; talk-ing parrots → konuş-an papağanlar;
            shin-ing  lights  →  ışılda-/y/an  ışıklar;  smil-ing  baby  →  gülümse-/y/en
            bebek;  rise-ing  prices  →  yüksel-en  fiyatlar;  fall-ing  leaves  →  düş-en
            yapraklar;  roar-ing lions → kükre-/y/en arslanlar.

            Turkish infinitives “verb-[mek, mak]”, “verb-[me, ma]” and the others are
            always nominal infinitives. They always function as nouns in sentences.
            However, the English “to verb” infinitives may either function as nouns, as
            adjectives or adverbs without changing their forms. For instance:

            Mary Türkçe öğren-mek iste-iyor.  (The infinitive is nominal.)
            Mary wants to learn Turkish. (The infinitive is nominal.)
            Mary benim-le konuş-ma-/y/ı reddet-ti. (The infinitive is nominal.)
            Mary refused to talk to me. (The infinitive is nominal.)

            Mary bir araba al-mak için para biriktir-iyor. (“Infinitive + için” is adverbial.)
            Mary is saving money to buy a car. (The infinitive is adverbial.)
            Balık tut-mak için göl-e git-ti-im. (Infinitive + postposition) (Adverbial)
            I went to the lake to fish. (The infinitive is adverbial.)

            Jack okul-dan çık-an ilk çocuk-tu. (“Çık-an” is an adjective.)
            Jack was the first boy to leave the school. (“To leave” is an adjective.)
            (The infinitive modifies the noun “boy”; so it is an adjective.)

            Yürü-/y/ecek uzun bir yol-umuz var. (“Yürü-/y/ecek” is an adjective.)
            We have a long way to walk. (“To walk” is an adjective.)

            Öğren-ecek çok şey-iniz var. (“Öğren-ecek” is an adjective.)
            You have a lot of things to learn. (“To learn” is an adjective.)

            Bitir-ecek bir iş-im var. (“Bitir-ecek” is an adjective.)
            I have a work to finish. (“To finish” is an adjective.)

            Note:

            Blue words and underlines show subjects, but blue subject allomorphs
            are not always underlined.
            Black underlines and black words show objects, noun clauses, and nouns.



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