Page 2 - TURKISH INFINITIVES and ENGLISH INFINITIVES or ENGLISH GERUNDS - YUKSEL GOKNEL
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INFINITIVES or GERUNDS

                TURKISH INFINITIVES and ENGLISH INFINITIVES or GERUNDS

            Before we begin with the English and Turkish grammars, it may be useful to
            start with the Turkish infinitives, and either English infinitives or gerunds.

            In Turkish, there are only infinitives that are formed of a verb and various
            noun-producing allomorphs attached to a verb, such as:

            verb-[mek, mak]
            verb-[me, ma]
            verb-[iş, ış, üş, uş]
            verb-[dik, dık, dük, duk, tik, tık, tük, tuk]

            The allomorphs above written black are the noun-producing allomorphs
            that  turn  verbs  into  infinitives  when  they  are  attached  to  them.  Turkish
            infinitives generally function as nouns in Turkish sentences.

            However, the English infinitives may function either as nouns, as adverbs
            or as adjectives in sentences.

            “To verb” is an infinitive, and “verb-ing” is a gerund, but “verb-ing” is a
            present participle (adjective).

            The “ing” noun-producing suffix may turn a verb into a nominal gerund,
            but the same “ing” may also change a verb into an adjective “verb-ing”,
            which is called present participle.

            English nominal gerunds may be used as subjects, objects, objects of
            prepositions or as subject complements in sentences. English gerunds
            and their Turkish infinitive equivalents are underlined as follows:

            Read-ing helps us improve our knowledge. (The nominal gerund is subject.)
            Oku-mak bilgi-im-iz-i geliştir-me-/y/e yardım et-er. (The infinitive is subject.)

            Jack enjoys listen-ing to pop music. (“To pop music” is an adverbial phrase.)
            (“Enjoy” is a transitive verb; the underlined part is its object; “noun”.)
            Jack pop müzik dinle-mek-ten hoşlan-ır.
            (“Hoşlan” is an intransitive verb; the underlined part is an adverbial phrase)

            My sister is interested in annoy-ing me. (The gerund is the object of “in”.)
            Kız kardeş-im can-ım-ı sık-mak-la ilgilen-ir. (“Sık-mak-la” is an adverbial.)

            See-ing   is   believ-ing.  Gör-mek  inan-mak-tır.
             gerund     verb     gerund           infinitive       infinitive   verb






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