Page 8 - LINKING VERBS IN ENGLISH AND TURKISH - YUKSEL GOKNEL
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LINKING VERBS IN ENGLISH AND TURKISH

                      TURKISH CONSONANT HARMONY SEQUENCE

            Consonants are grouped under two subdivisions:

            voiced consonants:    / b, c, d, g, ğ, j, y, l, m, n, r, v, z /
            unvoiced consonants:   / ç, f, k, p, s, ş, t /

            The voiced consonants are the phonemes that are produced by vibrating
            the vocal cords while the breath is passing through the throat. To under-
            stand  the  voiced  and  unvoiced  difference,  first  produce  the  /v/  phoneme,
            which vibrates the vocal cords in your throat, and then, without changing the
            position of your teeth and lips, produce the same sound without vibrating the
            vocal cords to produce the unvoiced /f/ phoneme? When  you do this,  you
            feel no vibration in your throat. The consonants that vibrate the vocal cords
            are named voiced consonants; the consonants that do not vibrate them
            are called unvoiced consonants. By the way, one should keep in mind that
            all  vowels  and  voiced  consonants  vibrate  the  vocal  cords.  The  vowels
            and the voiced consonants, which vibrate the vocal cords, are both called
            vocals. Only the unvoiced consonants do not vibrate them. In Turkish, the
            voiced  consonants  are  called  "yumuşak  (sedalı)  ünsüzler",  and  the
            unvoiced consonants are called "sert ünsüzler".

            The  /p/, /ç/, /k/, /t/ unvoiced consonants change into their voiced counter-
            parts /b/, /c/, /ğ/, /d/ when they detach from their syllables and attach to the
            first vowels of the [i, ı, ü, u], or [e, a] allomorphs:


            /p/  changes  into  /b/:  kitap-ı,  kitap-a  (ki*ta*bı,  ki*ta*ba),  sebep-i,  sebep-e
            (se*be*bi,  se*be*be),  kebap-ı,  kebap-a  (ke*ba*bı,  ke*ba*ba),  çorap-ı,
            çorap-a  (ço*ra*bı,  ço*ra*ba),  dolap-ı  (do*la*bı,  do*la*ba),  şarap-ı,  şarap-a
            (şa*ra*bı, şa*ra*ba),  hesap-ı, hesap-a (he*sa:*bı, he*sa:*ba).


            /ç/  changes  into  /c/:  ağaç-ı,  ağaç-a    (a*ğa*cı,  a*ğa*ca),  sayaç-ı,  sayaç-a
            (sa*ya*cı,  sa*ya*ca),  amaç-ı,  amaç-a  (a*ma*cı,  a*ma*ca),  ayraç-ı,  ayraç-a
            (ay*ra*cı, ay*ra*ca), demeç-i, demeç-e (de*me*ci, de*me*ce).

            /k/ changes into /ğ/: sokak-ı, sokak-a (so*ka*ğı, so*ka*ğa), tabak-ı, tabak-a
            (ta*ba*ğı, ta*ba*ğa), kürek-i, kürek-e (kü*re*ği, kü*re*ğe), bebek-i, bebek-e
            (be*be*ği, be*be*ğe), köpek-i, köpek-e (kö*pe*ği, kö*pe*ğe), ayak-ı, ayak-a
            (a*ya*ğı, a*ya*ğa), bardak-ı, bardak-a (bar*da*ğı, bar*da*ğa).

            /t/ changes into /d/: adet-i, adet-e (a*de*di, a*de*de), kanat-ı, kanat-a (ka*-
            na*dı, ka*na*da), umut-u, umut-a (u*mu:*du, u*mu:*da), yoğurt-u, yoğurt-a



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