Page 5 - LINKING VERBS IN ENGLISH AND TURKISH - YUKSEL GOKNEL
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LINKING VERBS IN ENGLISH AND TURKISH

            nounced: /ı/ as in English “again”; /ö/ as in German “schön”; and /ü/ as in
            German “hütte” respectively.

            Among the consonants, there are the / ç, ş, ğ / phonemes, which are pro-
            nounced as “ch” as in “church”, “sh” as in “fish”; and to produce the /ğ/
            phoneme, which does not exist in English, first produce /g/ phoneme, and
            make it longer by letting your breath pass between your tongue and the hard
            palate of your mouth while vibrating your vocal cords.

                     TURKISH VOWEL AND CONSONANT HARMONY

             Turkish is said to be an agglutinative language, which means that suffixes
            are  attached  to  word  roots,  stems  and  frames  one  following  the  other  in
            sequence  to  arrange  words.  To  understand  how  these  syllable  and  suffix
            chains  are  arranged,  one  should  understand  the  vowel  and  consonant
            harmony rules of the Turkish language before one begins to attach suffixes
            to roots or stems, and to the suffixes following them.
                              VOWEL HARMONY SEQUENCE

            A Turkish speaker follows two certain harmony chains to produce a vowel
            harmony sequence:
            1.  The hard vowel harmony chain.  2. The thin vowel harmony chain.

            1.  The hard (back) vowel harmony chain is  “o  ⟶  u  ⟶  a ⇄ ı”

             2.  The thin  (front)  vowel  harmony  chain is  “ö  ⟶  ü  ⟶  e ⇄ i”


            In  both  chains,  the  first  vowels  /o/  and  /ö/  never  repeat  themselves.  The
            other vowels can be repeated as many times as necessary. The arrow (→)
            points  to  the  vowel  that  should  follow  the  previous  one.  The  arrows  (⇄),
            pointing to both directions, show that /i/ may follow /e/, or /e/ may follow /i/.
            In  the  hard  vowel  harmony  chain,  /a/  and  /ı/  do  the  same.  Furthermore,
            besides  the  arrows,  the  letters  “r”  are  put  under  repeatable  vowels  to
            complete our diagrams:


            1. The hard (back) vowel harmony chain:  “o ⟶    u r  ⟶  a r ⇄ ı r ”


             2. The  thin  (front)  vowel  harmony chain:  “ö  ⟶   ü r  ⟶  e r ⇄ i r ”




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