P. 4


            Different  from  English  verb  phrases,  Turkish  main  verbs  contain  subject
            allomorphs  attached  to  them.  Additionally,  there  may  also  be  a  personal
            pronoun  in  the  beginning  of  a  Turkish  sentence,  and  a  subject  allomorph
            conveying the same meaning of the personal pronoun in the beginning of a
            sentence.  The  subject  allomorphs  attached  to  the  ends  of  the  verb
            phrases are compulsory elements, but the pronouns used in the beginning
            of  the  sentences  are  optional  elements  because  the  subject  allomorphs
            used  at  the  ends  of  the  main  verbs  are  enough  to  express  the  pronouns
            used in the beginning of the sentences. Therefore, these subject pronouns
            are generally ignored unless they are intentionally emphasized, such as:

             (Ben)     yarın       sen-i    gör  -  ebil-ir   -  im.  (“Ben” can be ignored.)
                  I        tomorrow        you        see          can             I

              Yarın    sen-i   gör  -   ebil-ir  -  im.  (ya*rın / se*ni / gö*re*bi*li*rim)
            tomorrow    you       see          can             I      (Read from right to left.)
              İş-in-i      yap   -    malı   -   /s/ın.  (i*şi*ni / yap*ma*lı*sın)
            your work      do            must           you     (Read from right to left.)
            Contrary  to  the  English  verb  phrases,  Turkish  verb  phrases  start  with  the
            main verbs and the auxiliary allomorphs follow the main verbs in succession
            attached to one another. The succession of a Turkish verb phrase is as fol-

                Main verb- modal allomorph- time allomorph- subject allomorph

            In  place  of  the  auxiliary  verbs  of  the  English  language,  there  are  different
            auxiliary allomorphs carrying the same meaning of the morphemes in Turk-
            ish.  For  instance,  the  corresponding  present  continuous  suffix  “ing”  of  the
            English language is expressed in Turkish by the morpheme “iyor”, which has
            four  allomorphs    “iyor,  ıyor,  üyor,  uyor”  produced  by  the  sound  system.
            These  allomorphs  change  following  the  last  vowels  of  the  main  verbs,
            such as:

                    Gel-iyor-um. Çalış-ıyor-um. Gül-üyor-um. Otur-uyor-um.

                           TURKISH PHONEMES and LETTERS
            Turkish has 29 letters in its alphabet that represent the phonemes. Some of
            these letters / o, u, a, ı / and / ö, ü, e, i / are vowels (ünlüler), and the others
            /  b,  c,  ç,  d,  f,  g,  ğ,  h,  j,  k,  l,  m,  n,  p,  r,  s,  ş,  t,  v,  y,  z  /  are  consonants

            All the letters above represent phonemes, that is why they are shown be-
            tween  “/  /”  signs.  Phonemics  is  not  interested  in  detailed  phonetic  differ-
            ences. Some of the vowels / ı, ö, ü / do not exist in English. They are pro-

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