Page 3 - LINKING VERBS IN ENGLISH AND TURKISH - YUKSEL GOKNEL
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LINKING VERBS IN ENGLISH AND TURKISH

               SOME IMPORTANT POINTS TO LEARN BEFORE YOU BEGIN
                           READING THE FOLLOWING ARTICLE

            1.  A  verb  phrase  contains  a  main  verb  and  some  auxiliary  verbs  used
            together  with  the  main  verb  in  English.  It  does  not  contain  a  subject,  an
            object  or  any  adverbials.  However  in  Turkish,  in  addition  to  a  main  verb
            and  auxiliary  allomorphs,  a  subject  allomorph  that  bears  the  meaning  of
            the pronoun in the beginning of a sentence is attached to a verb phrases as
            a grammatical rule. For instance:

              Yarın       ben-i     gör-ebil-ir-/s/in.
            tomorrow           me               can see        you     (Read from right to left.)

            If you read the English sentence under the Turkish sentence above starting
            from  right  to  left,  you  can  find  the  English  equivalent  of  the  Turkish
            sentence  above.  Additionally,  in  place  of  the  English  pronoun  “you”,  the
            Turkish subject allomorph “/s/in” is used instead of the pronoun “sen” of the
            Turkish  sentence.  As  a  general  rule,  the  personal  pronouns  are  generally
            ignored in Turkish sentences if they are not thought dominant.

            In  order  to  understand  the  morphology  of  the  Turkish  words,  we  have  to
            learn first the morphemes and allomorphs that form the meaningful elements
            of languages.

            According  to  English  grammars,  there  are  two  kinds  of  morphemes  in
            English: free morphemes, which are the word roots that cannot be divided
            into  meaningful  units,  and  bound  morphemes,  which  are  the  prefixes  or
            suffixes  attached  to  them.  This  explanation  is  true  when  English  is
            considered  because  all  the  auxiliary  verbs,  including  the  modal  verbs,  are
            free morphemes. On the other hand, if we consider their functions, we could
            say that the auxiliary verbs are syntactically related to main verbs.

            For instance, when we ask someone what “can” means, he cannot explain
            the  meaning  of  this  word  without  using  a  verb  following  it,  such  as:  “can
            work”, “can remember”, “can understand”, “can be”. Therefore, the auxiliary
            verbs of the English language may be considered as bound morphemes as
            they do not convey sense without being followed by verbs.

            On  the  contrary,  all  the  corresponding  auxiliary  verbs  of  the  English  lan-
            guage are expressed in allomorphs attached to one another in Turkish. The
            Turkish  allomorphs  that  correspond  to  the  English  auxiliary  verbs  are
            showed in the following Turkish verb phrases:

            Gör -  me  -  di  - ik
            see       not       did    we   (Read from right to left.)



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