Page 9 - ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES
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ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

            Yemek-e gel-me-den (önce) el-ler-in-i yıka-malı-sın.
            (ye*me*ğe / gel*me*den / el*le*ri*ni / yı*ka*ma*lı*sın ↷)
            You must wash your hands before you come to dinner.

            Çık-ma-dan (önce) kasiyer-e öde.
            (çık*ma*dan / ön*ce / ka*si*ye*re / ö*de ↷)
            Pay the cashier before you leave.

            AFTER  (SONRA)

            To  transform  a  simple  sentence  into  a  “sonra”  phrase,  one  should  use
            “verb-♫ [dik, dık, dük, duk, tik, tık, tük, tuk]-[ten, tan] + sonra” composition
            following the vowel and consonant harmony rules. “Sonra” is a postposition
            used after “noun-[DEN] + sonra” such as “okul-dan sonra”, “sen-den son-
            ra”, “sen gel-dik-ten sonra”, which are all postpositional adverbial phrases.
            For example:

            gel-dik-ten sonra, al-dık-tan sonra, oku-duk-tan sonra, seç-tik-ten son-
            ra,  pişir-dik-ten  sonra,  görün-dük-ten  sonra,  bekleş-tik-ten  sonra,
            anlaş-tık-tan sonra, pişiril-dik-ten sonra, ben-den sonra, etc.

            Note: The word “verb” covers both the verb roots, stems, frames,
            and verbal compositions.

            In  the  composition  above,  the  ♫  [dik,  dık,  dük,  duk,  tik,  tık,  tük,  tuk]
            allomorphs  produce  infinitives  that  are  attached  to  [den,  dan,  ten,  tan]
            allomorphs that are followed by the "sonra" postposition. This composition
            produces  a  timeless  prepositional  adverbial  phrase  whose  time  is  inferred
            from the time of the finite verbs at the ends of the sentences.

            Like all infinitives, this composition does not convey a time concept. Its time
            concept  is  inferred  from  the  time  concept  of  the  finite  verb  that  is  used
            together with the postpositional adverbial phrase: Follow the examples:

            (O)    ev ödev-i-/n/i   yap-tık-tan sonra yat-tı.
            subj    definite obj of “yap”   infinitive-tan     postp         |
                                postp adverbial phrase of time               verb
                                                            predicate
            He went to bed after he had done (he did) his homework.

            Çocuk-lar zil çal-dık-tan sonra futbol oyna-mak için dışarı-/y/a çık-acak
                subject          infinitive- tan        postp              infinitive            postp           |                    |
                                    postp adverb phrs of time     postp adverb phrs of cause  adverbial          verb
                                                                                 predicate


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