Page 6 - ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES
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ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

            into  adverbial  clauses,  which  are  furnished  by  the  concepts  of  these
            conjunctions.  On  the  contrary,  when  an  adverbial  phrase  is  formed  in
            Turkish,  a  simple  sentences  is  transformed  into  a  postpositional  phrase
            before it becomes an adverbial phrase.

            If we think about how this sentence is produced, we can see that there is a
            simple sentence underlying the phrase "ben-im istasyon-a var-ma-am" such
            as in the following example. (“var-ma-am” = “benim var-ma-am”)

            (Ben) istasyon-a var-dı-ım + önce  "(ben-im) istasyon-a var-ma-am”-dan + önce”
            (Ben) istasyon-a var-dı-ım + önce  "ben istasyon-a var-ma-dan + önce"

            (Ben-im) istasyon-a var-ma-am-dan önce tren git-ti (git-miş-ti).
            Ben istasyon-a var-ma-dan (önce) tren git-miş-ti.

            Tren  (Ben-im) istasyon-a var-ma-am - dan   önce    git-miş-ti
              subj                noun + infinitive compound-dan                     postp              |
                                                   postpositional phrase of time                         verb
                                                                                     predicate

            This  sentence  is  like  the  English  sentence,  “The  train  had  left  before  my
            arriving at the station”. In this sentence, “ben-im istasyon-a var-ma-am” is a
            “noun + infinitive” compound. “İstasyon-a” is an  adverbial  which is com-
            posed of a “noun-[E]”. “Ben-im istasyon-a var-ma-am” is a nominal phrase.
            As all nouns can be followed by [İ], [E], [DE], [DEN] or [LE] morphemes, this
            nominal  phrase  can  be  followed  by  a  [dan]  allomorph.  “Önce”  is  a  post-
            position  used  after  a  “noun-[DEN]”  such  as:  “öğle-den  önce”,  “okul-dan
            önce”, “sen-den önce”, “yemek-ten önce”, “sen gel-me-den önce”. Therefore,
            “ben-im istasyon-a var-ma-am-dan önce” is a “noun compound-dan + önce”,
            which is a postpositional phrase functioning as an adverb of time.

            There are two kinds of subjects in Turkish sentences. One of them in the
            beginning  of  a  sentence  as  a  pronoun,  and  the  other  one  as  a  subject
            allomorph attached to the main verb at the end. The subject allomorphs
            attached  to  the  ends  of  the  sentences  are  compulsory.  However,  the
            pronouns  are  always  optional.  The  other  two-sided  expressions  are  in
            noun compounds. They have possessive personal allomorphs attached
            to the possessive and the owned parts of the compounds, such as in “Arkdaş-ın gel-
            di” sentence, the “ın” allomorph means “senin”. Therfore, “senin” is always omitted.

            Ben istasyon-a var-ma-dan (önce) tren git-miş-ti.
            (ben / is*tas*yo*na / var*ma*dan / tren / git*miş*ti ↷)
            Before I arrived at the station, the train had left.


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