Page 5 - ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES
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ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

            sentence,  the  sentence  "Ben  okul-a  geldim  +  önce"  is  transformed  into  
            "ben okul-a gel-me-den (önce)", which is a timeless postpositional phrase.

            ben okul-a geldim + önce  “ben okul-a gel-me-den (önce)”

            (Ben) okul-a gel-me-den (önce) (ben) ev ödev-im-i  yap-tı-ım. (ım = ben)
            subject       infinitive-den          posp                           |                     |
                               postpositional adverbial phrs                  definite object  verb+subj allomorph
                                                                               predicate

            Note: The [me, ma] allomorphs have four different meanings in Turkish:

            1:  “before”,  2:  “without”,  3:  “verb-[me,  ma]”  infinitives,  4:  negation  [me,  ma]
            suffıxes.

            In the sentence above the  “me” means “before”. Therefore, the subordi-
            nating conjunction “before” is used only to stress the time. However in the
            following sentence it may mean both “without” and “before”.

            Birşey söyle-me-den dışarı-/y/a çık-tı. (The “me” means “without” or “before”.)
            She went out without (or before) say-ing anything.

            (Ben) ev-e git-ecek-im + önce    “ben ev-e git-me-den (önce)”
            Ev-e git-me-den (önce)  biraz meyve  al-acak-ım. (ım = ben)
                  infinitive-den           postp                 |                        |          |
                  postp adverbial phrase       indefinite object         verb   subj allomorph
                                                             predicate                             subject

            I will go home + before   “before I go home”
                I   will buy   some fruit   before I go home.
             subj    verb           object                 adverbial clause
                                                    predicate

            The sentence order above may also change as follows:

            Ev ödev-im-i okul-a gel-me-den (önce) yap-mış-tı-ım. (“im” = “benim”)
                         |                      infinitive-[den]             postp             |             |
              definine object          postpositional phrs of time             verb     subject
                                                         predicate
            (e*vö*de*vi*mi / o*ku*la / gel*me*den / yap*mış*tım ↷)

            The sentence order above is used when the adverb of time is stressed.

            The  adverbial  clauses  in  English  start  with  subordinating  conjunctions,
            and  both  the  main  clauses  and  the  subordinate  clauses  in  such  complex
            sentences have finite verbs, which mean that both clauses are structurally
            simple  sentences.  When  a  subordinating  conjunction  such  as  “before”,
            “after”,  “since”,  “although”,  “until”,  “when”,  or  “while”,  etc.  is  placed  before
            one  of  these  sentences,  these  subordinating  conjunctions  transform  them


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